In 2000, United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan called for an assessment – the Millennium Assessment (MA) – which would seek to answer some core questions concerning human well-being and the relationship to ecosystem services:
- How have ecosystems and their services changed?
- What has caused these changes?
- How have these changes affected human well-being?
- How might ecosystems change in the future and what are the implications for human well-being?
- And what options exist to enhance the conservation of ecosystems and their contribution to human well-being?
The synthesis resulting from this Millennium Assessment, published in 2005, is a robust document presenting the research undertaken to answer these questions. In relationship to regenerative viticulture, it provides a scientific basis for a transition to actions which could delay, halt or even reverse ecosystem service degradation. It is undoubtedly a resource of great use to those seeking to influence policy both in agriculture and sustainability.